br Overall of the women had ever conducted
Overall, 31.6% of the women had ever conducted SBE. The same proportion of women had ever carried out CBE. These findings agree with reports from previous studies. The study by Omotara et al.  revealed that only 24% of the women who participated in their study had ever carried out SBE. Azubike et al.  revealed that only 17.7% of women in Benin City practised breast cancer screening while Okobia et al.  revealed that only 43.2% of female healthcare workers carried out SBE in the preceding year. In Rivers State, Nigeria, barely 21.1% of women had ever carried out SBE .
The proportion of women who practised breast cancer screening was significantly higher among respondents with tertiary education in the current study. Our result is consistent with that of Amoran et al.  which revealed that tertiary education was the only predictor of breast cancer screening in a Nigerian rural community. Family planning
practice was equally significantly associated with breast cancer screening in the current study. This is not an unexpected finding since women who attended family planning clinics and embraced modern contraceptive methods must have at one time or the other been exposed to information which can positively influence their breast cancer screening practices. Our study also showed that awareness and knowledge of breast cancer were significantly associated with screening practices. In fact, awareness of breast cancer screening was the only significant predictor of breast cancer screening practice in our study population. This is in agreement with finding from a study by Azubike et al.  which showed that breast cancer screening was significantly influenced by knowledge of the study participants. Our finding is however in MDMB-FUBICA to that of a systematic review by Olajide et al.  which showed that awareness and knowledge did not influence per-formance of breast cancer screening. Knowledge has been widely documented in medical literatures as a major determinant of health-related behaviour including cancer screening practices. The proportion of women who had gone for breast cancer screening was also sig-nificantly higher among respondents who had lost their relatives to breast cancer. Women with relatives who had died of breast cancer must have been adequately educated about risk factors and preventive strategies of the disease by healthcare workers while taking care of their loved ones in the hospital. The information accessed during such per-iods of care could have positively influenced our respondents to access breast cancer screening.
Breast cancer awareness level is relatively high in the study popu-lation but this did not translate to good knowledge about the disease. The proportion of women who had ever carried out any form of breast cancer screening was also low among the respondents. Awareness of BSE was the only significant predictor of breast cancer screening. Authors recommend a paradigm shift in the breast cancer awareness campaigns in Nigeria. While campaigns among elites, civil servants and female healthcare workers should be sustained, Retrovirus is high time pro-gramme implementers began to package robust community-based campaigns to capture the less educated and unemployed women. Such campaign efforts should be done in local languages using effective health communication strategies such social drama and group discus-sions among homogeneous categories of women in various commu-nities. Mass media should equally be positively engaged in the aware-ness campaign efforts. Governments at all levels should ensure that the existing primary healthcare facilities are well equipped and staff ade-quately trained to educate and teach women on BSE. Healthcare staff should further be trained on how to conduct CBE and to refer any woman with breast lumps to hospitals where comprehensive care can be obtained. Non-governmental organizations working to reduce the burden of breast cancer could assist in ensuring that breast cancer in-formation and services in such healthcare facilities are highly sub-sidized to make them more affordable to women. This will enhance easy access to information and increase uptake of breast cancer screening among Nigerian women.
6. Study limitation
Due to lack of funding, the study was conducted among 332 re-spondents, this could have reduced the precision of the study. However, due to the fact that multi-stage sampling method was employed, the external validity of the study would have been greatly enhanced. Journal of Cancer Policy 20 (2019) 100179
Conflict of interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest in the conduct of this study.
Authors wish to acknowledge the heads of the communities in Ogbomosho South LGA, Oyo State for allowing this study to be con-ducted in their domains.
 World Health Organization, Cancer: Fact Sheet, available on https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer (Accessed 13th July 2018) (2018).